Home BS Notes A TELL LIKE JERICHO East West BA|BS|BSc English Part II Cha 3

A TELL LIKE JERICHO East West BA|BS|BSc English Part II Cha 3

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A TELL LIKE JERICHO East and West – BA | BS | BSc English Notes Part II Chapter 3 Short questions, Long questions, Summarizing, Textual Comprehension, Important Questions, and Urdu Translate.

The author tells us about the mound of Charsadda. He stands on a mound. He remembers that Charsadda was the capital of Gandhara before the rule of Kishan dynasty. The rulers of the Kishan dynasty made Peshawar their capital. It has huge mountains on three sides and the river Sind on the fourth side. The area of ​​Charsadda is very fertile. Like Lombardy and Damascus, the area is lush.

In the Gandhara region, river water flows are confined to high and low hills. As soon as it comes out of the mountains or into the plains, it shows great speed. The author has given three examples in this regard. The first example is the Kabul River. Which flows freely over Warsak with full force.

The second example is of the Indus River which flows with full intensity under the river Joamb and the third example is of the Swat River which flows loudly as soon as it comes to Abazai and suddenly gets freedom from the surrounding hills. Rivers have been diverted to several cities, which have made the area lush. Nearly three thousand years of civilization is lying face down at its feet.

Civilization continued to flourish. The new civilization here in the reward and then disappeared. After the demise of every civilization, Charsadda became more and more powerful. Charsadda Katila remained the centre of the Gandhara civilization for three thousand years. Herriot Catella is even older.

Charsadda Katila stopped rising 15-16 years ago today. When this nation destroyed it, its glory could not be restored. Here came the new civilization. The author also visited Shabqadrka city. A fort has been built here. This fort has two floors. The upper floor is of the Fergie era. While the floor below belongs to the Sikh era. Now, this fort is under the control of Pakistani forces.

Urdu Trasnlate A TELL LIKE JERICHO

اردو ترجمہ : مصنف ہمیں چارسدہ کے ٹیلے کے متعلق بتا تا ہے وہ کہتا ہے کہ یہ ٹیلہ اردن کے ہریکو ٹیلے کے ماند معلوم ہوتا ہے ۔ وہ ایک ٹیلے پر کھڑا ہو جا تا ہے ۔ وہ سو چتا ہے کہ کشن خاندان کی حکومت سے پہلے چارسدہ گندھارا کا دار الحکومت تھا کشن خاندان کے حکمرانوں نے پشاور کواپنادارالحکومت بنایا ۔ اس کے تین طرف بڑے بڑے پہاڑ ہیں اور چوتھی سمت دریاۓ سند واقع ہے ۔ چارسدہ کا علاقہ بہت زرخیز ہے ۔ لمبارڈی اور دمشق کے مانند یہ علاقہ بڑا سرسبز ہے ۔ گندھارا کے علاقہ میں دریاؤں کا پانی اونچی نیچی پہاڑیوں میں قید ہو کر بہتا ہے ۔ جونہی می در یا پہاڑوں سے نکل کر میدانی علاقہ میں آ تا ہے تو بہت تیزی کا مظاہرہ کرتا ہے ۔

یمنظر قابل دید ہے مصنف نے اس سلسلہ میں تین مثالیں دی ہیں ۔ پہلی مثال در یاۓ کابل کی ہے ۔ جو وارسک پر پوری قوت سے آزاد ہو کر بہتا ہے ۔ دوسری مثال در یاۓ سندھ کی ہے جوامب کے نیچے پوری شدت سے بہتا ہے اور تیسری مثال دریاۓ سوات کی ہے جو ابازئی پر آ کر اچانک اردگرد کی پہاڑیوں سے آزادی پاتے ہی زور شور سے بہتا ہے ۔ دریاؤں سے کئی شہر میں نکالی گئی ہیں جنہوں نے اس علاقے کو سرسبز بنادیا ہے ۔ تقر یبا تین ہزار سال کی تہذیب اس کے دامن میں منہ لپٹے سوئی پڑی ہے ۔ تہذ یب بنتی رہی اورٹتی رہی ۔ نئی تہذ یہیں اجر میں اور پھر مٹ گئیں ۔ ہر تہذیب کے میٹنے کے بعد چارسدہ کاٹیلہ اور زیادہ اونچا ہوگیا ۔

چارسدہ کاٹیلہ تین ہزار سال تک گندھارا تہذیب کا مرکز رہا ۔ ہریکو کاٹیلہ اس سے بھی قدیم ہے ۔ چارسدہ کاٹیلہ آج سے پندرہ سولہ سوسال پہلے اونچا ہونا بند ہو گیا ۔ ہن قوم نے اسے تباہ کیا تو اس کے بعد اس کی شان وشوکت بحال نہ ہوسکی ۔ یہاں نئی تہذیب کی آ مدرک گئی ۔ مصنف نے شب قد رکا شہر بھی دیکھا ۔ یہاں ایک قلعہ تعمیر کیا گیا ہے ۔اس قلعہ کی دومنزلیں ہیں ۔ بالائی منزل فرگی دور کی ہے ۔ جبکہ زیر میں منزل سکھوں کے دور کی ہے ۔ اب یہ قلعہ افواج پاکستان کے قبضہ میں ہے چارسدہ سے مشرق کی طرف تخت بائی کی پہاڑی

Important Questions A TELL LIKE JERICHO

Q.1 These sentences are taken from Toynbee’s essay “The Indus in Fetters.” State in your own words what he further writes about the Gandhara Civilisation and Charsadda. (Peshawar University 2011)

“I have not yet seen a town like Alice: perhaps the Alice is unique, but today I have seen a tell like Jericho. I am standing on the summit of the greater of the two great mounds at Charsadda.

If you can imagine a blend between Lombardy and Ghuttah of Damascus you will be able to conjure up Ghandhara in your mind’s eye. (page-14)

These lines have been taken from “A tell like Jericho” by Arnold J.Toynbee.
Describe in your own words what Arnold J.toynbee has to say about Charsadda, the Shabqadar fort and the Buddhist monastery at Takht Bhai.

OR
“Sikhs and British in their turns have come and gone, and the monuments of their fleeting occupation testify to the transitoriness of human efforts and achievements”. (page-16)

These lines have been taken from “A Tell like Jericho”Describe in your own words what Toynbee has said about the mound of Charsadda, the fort of Shabqadar, Takht-i-Bhai and the Buddhist monastery at Takht-i-Bhai.

Related: Chapter 2 THE INDUS IN FETTERS


Answer:

  1. The mound of Charsadda
    The writer describes his visit to Charsadda and Takht-i-Bhai. He says that Charsadda was the capital of Ghandhara in olden days. It is surrounded (1.0,1) by mountains at three sides and the river Kabul on the fourth side. For many centuries it played a very important role in the over land route between India and rest of the world. The mound of charsadda is like a giant foot stool which seems to have been planted squarely in a big court. The area of the court is forty by fifty miles. The great mound at Charsadda is the embodiment of old civilization.
    Different layers of the Charsadda mounds represent different ages of Ghandhara civilization and old culture from time to time. The mound is situated on the ruins of the old cities. Cities were destroyed and reduced to ruins. The new cities were built on the ruins of the old cities. This process continued for a long time. Charsadda mound presents the age of three thousand years. It travels from old time to the sacking by the Huns in the 5th or 6th A.D. The later age did hardly change it. Charsadda resembled in closely with Jericho, the oldest city of the world near Jordon. The mound of Jericho is older than this mound.There is enough fertile land near Charsadda There is superb greenery every where. It is all due to the flowing rivers. It is rich with powerful waters. The main crops of the area are wheat, rice and sugar cane. This place is also suited for fruit such as apricots oranges, plums, and pears. The writer makes a comparision -¬of the fertile and green land of Charsadda with the land of Lombardy and Ghuttah of Damascus.
  2. The Fort of Shabqadar
    The Shabqadar fort is situated on a hill. It has two storeys. The lower story was built by Sikhs while the upper story reminds us of the British. Two missing links — the British and Sikh ages can be seen here. Today there is the garrison of Pakistan Army’s Frontier Force in this fort. The later deposits of civilization that are missing at Charsadda are present in the Shabqadar fort. The fort of Shabqadar reminds the world that human efforts are invain. The fort was once occupied by the Sikhs and the British. But their possession was for a short time. The Sikhs and the British have gone for long while the fort still stands there. Only their monument is left behind.
  3. Takht-Bhai
    Takht Bhai is an important land mark in the Ghandhara civilization. It is a little mountain. It is about one thousand feet high from the sea-level. The steep shoulders of Takhat Bhai carry the grand remains and ruins of Buddhist monasteries.
  4. The Buddhist Monasteries
    The Buddhist monasteries are situated on the top of Takht Bhai near the village of Shahr-i-Behlol. These monasteries tell us a lot and give us first-hand knowledge about the ancient civilization of the area. The monks used to lead a pious (04 and simple life in order to get salvation. They wanted to escape from the cycle of rebirth. They might have achieved it. The remains of the Buddhist monasteries are important not from religious point of view but from archeological point of view. The ruins of monasteries depict a calm and serenity.

Q.2: Describe the scene as seen from the mound near Charsadda? How does it impress Arnold L J.Toynbee?

OR

What do you know about the mound near charsadda and the surrounding area? What does Arnold J. Toynbee feel while looking at it?

  1. The mount of charsadda:
    Charsadda was the capital of Ghandhara before, Kushan family, Arnold J.Toynbee visited it. He went to the mound of Charsadda. He wondered at the past grandeur of the area. He says that the mound of Charsadda is like a giant foot stool which seems to have been planted (tie) by large mountains at three sides and by river Kabul at the fourth side. The area of the court is forty to fifty miles. It is the embodiment of old civilization. Different Layers of mound Charsadda represent different ages of Ghandhara civilization.
  2. Fertile Plains: There are enough plains near Charsadda. These are very fertile   There are lives at tall green popu- tars. If one sees down from the mound of Charsadda, he will find orchards  and fields. There is greenery every where. It is all due to the channels into which river Kabul is devided to join the river Indus. This plain is rich with powerful waters. It is well irrigated These water ways have made this plain fertile and green. The channels flow at the speed of bullock cart between the green banks over hung with trees.
  3. Crops: The plain is suited for various crops. Sugar cane, wheat, and rice are the main crops of the area. There are orchards of pears, (J t) plums and apricots, Arnold J. Toynbee has compared the fertile and green land of Charsadda with the land of Lombardy and Chuttah of Damascus.
  4. Seat of Ghandhara civilization: Charsadda is the place where the civilization of Ghandhara grew and developed  four thousand years ago. It was the seat of government till it was transferred from Charsaddato Peshawar by Kushan.
  5. Scene of Swat River: The Scene of Swat river at Abazai is an important feature of this plain. Arnold J.Toynbee was much excited to see the featsy of the mountain rivers. He saw the feats of river Swat at Abazai and of river Kabul at Warsak. These rivers flow closed in fetters of mountians. As they enter the plains, they rush at full speed like a shell shooting forth from the mouth of a cannon. The river Swat at Abazai is so powerful that inspite of a bir: canal taken away from it, its force does not lessen This thing adds to the fertility and greenery of the plains of charsadda.
  1. Archaeological Grounds
    This plain is also important from archaeological point of view. It was the seat of Ghandhara culture for a long time. It has played a very important role in the over land route between India and the rest of the world.

Q.3: What is the importance of Shabqadar and Takht Bhai in the cultural history of Ghandhara?

OR

How are Shabqadar and Takht Bhai important in the Ghandhara civilization?

Shabqadar

Shabqadar fort is situated on a hill. It has two storeys. The lower storey was built by Sikhs. The upper storey was built by the British. The lower storey represents the early nineteenth century Sikh age. The upper storey represents the victorian age. Thus two links–the Sikh and the English age can be seen at the fort of Shabqadar. Once it was a seat of Sikh and the English rule. Today, there is the garrison of the Pakistan Army Frontier Force in the Fort.


Charsadda mound tells us about the cultural history of the Ghandhara age. It presents the age of three thousand years. It travels from old times to the sacking by the Huns in the 5th or 6th century A.D The Ghandhara age begins from the ancient age and ends by the beginning of the modern era.

It does not tell about the past few years. The Sikh and the English period. It is the period that is missing in the Charsadda mound. It is the Shabqadar fort that tells about this period. It throws light on the Sikh and English invasion The cultural effect of hundred and fifty years are visible in the fort of Shabqadar.

Takht Bhai

Takht Bhai is a little but perfect mountain. It is one thousand feet high from sea level. It is an important landmark in the Ghandhara civilization. It stands proudly and majestically above the village of Shahr-i-Behlol. The steep shoulders of Takht Bhai carry the grand remains of Buddhist Monasteries. Time has been destroying human civilization again and again. But there is one monument that has defeated time.

If we go towards the East, from Charsadda to Takht Bhai, we see Buddhist Monastries. It is situated on a high rock at Takht Bhai near Shahr-i-Behlol. This area is very high on the snow-capped peak, of the Hindu Kush and Himalayas. It is visible from here. It is an impressive scene.

These monasteries tell us a lot and give us first-hand knowledge about the civilization of this area. The monks used to lead a simple life in order to get salvation They might have achieved it. The remains of these Buddhist monasteries are important not from a religious point of view but from an archaeological point of view. So we may say that Shabqadar and Takht Bhai are important in the cultural history of the Ghandhara age.

Summarizing Passage No.3 A TELL LIKE JERICHO

A certain Roman miser died, and after being buried came to the banks of the gloomy river Styx, over which the shades of the departed were ferried by Charon. When miser, turned to his nature, rather than pay it, threw himself into the river and swam over the other side, in spite of the clamour and opposition that arose. All the lower regions were in an uproar and each of the judges of the dead was suggesting some punishment suitable to the crime.

One said he should be chained to a rock as Prometheus, who was being tortured for not helping mankind. Another said that he should be condemned to eternal punishment in hell, like the Danaides who had to fill a sieve with water. And a third advised that he should suffer the same punishment as Sisyphus, who had to push a large rock to the top of a hill. Minos, the supreme which always rolled down to the plains again.

But they must invent some severe punishment. And they declared that the miser should be sent back to the earth, to see the use his heirs were made of his riches.

Summary,
A Roman miser died. To enter the next world he was to cross the river Styx. He did not pay the fare, jumped into the river and swam over the other side. He was arrested and was brought before the judges of death. Different judges suggested different punishments for his crime. But the supreme judge decreed that he should be sent back to the earth to see how his wealth was being spent.
Heading:-“A Miser is Punished”


Textual Comprehsnion A TELL LIKE JERICHO

Read the following passage and answer the questions given at the end.

(Peshawar Unversity 1980, 1982)

Some fifteen hundred years have passed since the mound at Charsadda ceased to grow, probably it never recovered from being sacked by the Huns in the fifth or sixth century of the Christian era But the later deposits of civilization that are missing at Charsadda are present in the fort of Shab Kadar, which I visited this morning.

Here the upper storey is Victorian British, the lower story is early nineteenth-century Sikh, and the hill on which the Sikh invaders planted their stronghold might contain layers coeval with the latest at Charsadda. Today the fort at Shab Kadar was garrisoned by the Pakistan Army’s frontier’s force.

Sikhs and British in their turn have come and gone, and the monuments of their fleeting occupation testify to the transitoriness of human efforts and achievements yet some human achievements do endure. Travel east-wards from Charsadda to Takht-i- Bhai, and you will find a monument that has quietly conquered time. Takhi-i-Bhai is an isolated mountain that rises abruptly from the plain above the village of Shahr-i-Bahlol.

It does not rise very high by comparison with the glistening sierras of the Hindukush and the Himalayas, which are visible from the summit of Takh-i-Bhai in clear weather. Measured from plain-level, the attitude of Taklit-i-Bhai may not be more than about a thousand feet. But its precipitous flanks and razor-sharp ridges make it a true mountain in miniature. And its steep shoulders carry the massive remains of a Budd-hist monastery.


Here the monks attained the goal of their austere spiritual exercises. They won their way out of this world of appetite and recurrence into the serenity of the timeless state and this serene timelessness pervades their empty courts and cell. Down below, the plain is still fast bound in the grip of Karma. Down there, crops and culture have never ceased to change, Shahr-i-Bahlol is an archaeologist’s happy hunting ground.

It stands on the site of a city of Gandharan Age, Climbs the peak of the mountain from the monastery and look over the top, and you will see, below you, a post-war sugar-cane crushing mill. On the plain, the wheel of life is turning at an accelerating pace. But there, on the mountain, all is still. (Page 16-17)

Questions

What according to Toynbee, is the difference between the mound at Charsadda and the fort of Shabkadar?

The mound at Charsadda is like a giant footstool. It
contains ancient deposits of over 2000 years. It has ceased to grow. No more buildings were constructed hereafter the 5th century. The fort of Shab Kadar was built much later. It contains the deposits of recent time.

Give a brief account of the ideals and the ways of life of Buddhist monks?

The Buddhist man believed that desires are the main
cause of men’s sufferings. Man is born to the world again and again as a punishment for his greed. So the monks renounced all desires.

“Sikhs and British in their turn have come and gone and the monuments of their fleeting occupation testify to the transitoriness of human efforts and achievements” Explain.

Sikhs and British came here in turn. Sikhs built the
lower storey of the fort of Shab -Kader and the British Built the upper storey. They are no more here. but the monuments of the human efforts are present here.

Why, according to Toynbee, had the monument at Takht-i-Bhai conquered time and endured, whereas the monuments of the Sikh and the British have not?

The monuments at Takht-i-Bhai have conquered time and endured because these were the result of the struggle of Buddhist monks. The Sikhs and British could not endure because they both worked for material ends.

What is Karma and why does Toynbee say that the plain of Shar-i-Bahlol is still fast bound in the grip of Karma?

Karma is a Buddhist concept of reward and
punishment. According to this concept, human desires are the cause of man’s suffering. When a man gives up all his desires. He is released from the grip of Karma. Till then he appears again and again in different forms. Unlike monastery, the plain of sharing-Bahlol is changing. It is still in the grip of Karma.

Read more: BS English Notes J Spain Cha 1

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