The view of the river Indus is very beautiful in this place. If the river Indus is considered as Nazneen, then there are shackles lying on its feet in this place.  From here, big mountains start on both sides.  This mountain range, Kala Bagh, runs continuously.  After going to Kala Bagh, these trees are cut down and the river Indus starts flowing freely.  Now the writer is aiming for Khushal Garh.  This is a small village. 

Here the road goes down eating the bill.  This is a very dangerous road.  After this terrifying journey, the writer goes to Hot Punch. He compares this route with the road around Strand in the south of the People’s City of Nadal. When he reaches Hot, he turns east from Government College  The field ends and the chocolate-coloured hills begin. 

At first glance, it looks like the ocean has turned into the rock under the influence of magic.  As he stood on the bridge, his eyes fell on the shepherd. He was gathering his sheep. The shepherd gathered them and pushed them towards the river.  They were braver than the European sheep.  Otherwise, Khushal Khan Khattak would not have compared the heroes of his tribe with the sheep.  Europeans don’t like to go in the water.  He was amazed to see these sheep floating on the other shore with satisfaction.

Translate into Urdu

اردو ترجمہ : اس مضمون میں مصنف اپنے سفر کو ہاٹ کے چند دلچسپ مشاہدات بیان کرتا ہے ، جب دو درہ کوہاٹ کی بچت پر کھڑاہوکر سامنے نظر ڈالتا ہے تو اسے نیچے کوہاٹ کی چھاؤنی چھوٹی سے نظر آتی ہے اور کوہ سلیمان کی پہاڑیاں بیڑیوں کی شکل میں دریاۓ سندھ کی طرف جاتی ہوئی دکھائی

دیتی ہیں۔اس جگہ دریاۓ سندھ کا نظارہ بہت ہی خوبصورت ہے دریاۓ سند ھ کواگر نازنین تصور کیا جاۓ تو اس جگہ اس کے پاؤں میں بیڑیاں پڑی نظر آتی ہیں۔اٹک کے مقام پر در باۓ سند ھ مقید ہو جا تا ہے ۔ یہاں سے دونوں طرف بڑے بڑے پہاڑ شروع ہو جاے ہیں ۔ یہ پہاڑی سلسلہ کالا باغ یک مسلسل چلا جا تا ہے ۔ کالا باغ جا کر یہ پیڑ یاں کٹ جاتی ہیں اور دریائے سندھ آزادانہ طور پر بہتا شروع ہو جا تا ہے ۔ اب مصنف خوشحال گڑھ کا قصد کر تا ہے ۔ یہ ایک چھوٹا سا گاؤں ہے ۔ یہاں سڑک بل کھاتی ہوئی نچے جاتی ہے

۔ یہ بہت خطرناک راستہ ہے۔اگر یہاں اچا نک کار رو کناپڑے تو شاید یہ ناممکن ہے ۔ یہ خوفناک سفر طے کر کے مصنف کو ہاٹ پنچ جا تا ہے وہ اس راستے کا مواز نداٹلی کے شہر پیپلز کے جنوب میں سارنڈ کے اردگرد کے راستہ سے کرتا ہے کو ہاٹ پہنچ کر وہ گورنمنٹ کالج سے آ گے مشرق کی طرف مڑ جا تا ہے میدان ختم ہو جا تا ہے اور چاکلیٹ رنگ کی پہاڑیاں شروع ہو جاتی ہیں ۔ دیکھنے پر ایسا معلوم ہوتا ہے کہ سمند رکوکسی نے جادو کے اثر سے پتھر میں تبدیل کر دیا ہے ۔ جب وہ پل پر کھڑا تھا تو اس کی نظر گڈریہ پر پڑی وہ اپنی بھیڑوں کو اکٹھا کر رہا تھا گڈریے نے ان کو اکٹھا کر کے دریا کی طرف دھکیل دیا ۔ یہ بھیٹر میں یور پی بھیٹروں سے بہادر تھیں ۔ ورنہ خوشحال خان خٹک اپنے قبیلے کے بہادروں کا مقابلہ بھیٹروں سے نہ کرتا ۔ یور پی بھیٹر میں پانی میں جانا پسند نہیں کرتیں ۔ وہ یہ دیکھ کر حیران رہ گیا کہ یہ بھیٹرں اطمینان سے تیرتی ہوئی دوسرے کنارے پر پہنچ گئیں ۔وہ تمام دن اس منظر کود یکھتا رہا اور لطف اندوز ہوتار ہا ۔

Important Questions

Q.1 Give the summary of the lesson The Indus in Fetters.

  1. The Indus in fetters

The writer tells us about the beauty of the river Indus. Once he had to pass through Kohat Pass. He started the journey After passing through Afridi Tribal territory, he entered Kohat Pass. He stood on the roof of Kohat Pass.

He saw that the whole land was surrounded by hills, rocks and mountains. The rocks looked like a vast sea of reddish-brown rocks. He had the opportunity to look at the beauty of the river Indus. He says that the river Indus, like all other rivers, flows at its sweet will quite freely. But at two places, it has fetters

2. Places of Fetters

These two places are Attock and Kalabgh. It seems to be shut up in mountains at Attock. It appears as if it has been chained and imprisoned. At Attock, the water of Indus is confined to a narrow way. It flows through a narrow and rocky path from Attock to Kavanagh. It is surrounded on both sides by big hills. At kalabagh it comes out of fetters. It is free again and flows at its sweet will. The waves move very fast. The water flows widespread in plains.

Related: BS English Notes J Spain Cha 1 Peshawar

It was very dangerous to pass through the Kohat Pass downwards. It looked like a death trap to drive on these roads. The writer drove with utmost care and came down towards the Kohat Cantonment. After reaching the Government College, he turned towards East.

3. Decides to go to Khushhal Garh

He decided to go to Khushhal Garh. He stood on the bridge. He saw a sight. He saw a shepherd He was arranging his beautiful sheep in order. The sheep got together but they were frightened because they were to pass through water. The shepherd pushed them towards the river.

The writer could not understand why the man was treating the sheep harshly. He thought that he was either mad or a devil incarnate but he was neither of the two. The writer was surprised when he saw the sheep going down one after another in the water of the river and climbing onto the other bank.

They shook their bodies like dogs who do the same when they come out of the water. He remembered that European sheep did not like water and were cowards. He also remembered that the great Pushto poet Kushhal Khan. Khattak had compared the bravery and courage of his tribe men to that of sheep. He enjoyed the scene fully and wished to see it again and again.

Q.2: What does A.J. Toynbee mean by the words “The Indus in fetters”

Justify the title “The Indus in Fetters”, Give your reasons for the justification.

  1. The indus is fetters
    Arnold J. Toynbee has described his vistit to Kohat Pass. Kohat cantonment and Khushhal Garh bridge of river Indus under the heading. “The Indus in Fetters.” By the words “The Indus in fetters”, he means that the river Indus flows between high hills from Attock to Kalabagh and thus he is fully justified in saying that Indus has two fetters.
  2. Fetters at Attock and kalabagh
    The Indus has fetters at two places. These places are at Attock and Kalabagh. At Attock, river goes into fetters and begins to flow, arrested between the high walls of surrounding mountains. The wide spread ..waters. of Indus are suddenly confined to a narrow way. The river, upward, was flowing openly at its sweet will without any boundary. But at Attock it has to limit its waves into a narrow path. This path looks like a prison. When its waters are suddently confined. Right from Attock to kalabagh, the river flows surrounded on both sides by big hills and presents a romanic scene. In short, on reaching Attock, The Indus enters mountains. Its water then flows through a narrow and rocky path from Attock to Kalabagh. The writer calls these two places as fetters of indus rivers because its path through the rocks is like a prison where its waters are kept confined. At kalabagh it is set free again.
  3. Free at Kalabagh
    At Kalabagh, it comes out of its fetters and the waters are set free. Soon the water flows wide spread. The rocks begin to give way to sand fields which are spread for miles and miles. As a result of this, the river flows in as wide a way as it likes, right after Kalabagh down to the plains of Sindh, where after, It enters the Arabian Sea.
    Thus we see that Indus has two fetters — one at Attock and the other at Kalabagh. At Attock it has to confine itself into a narrow way. It is the same confined way for miles and miles from Attock to Kalabagh. It is out of its fetters and gets released once again and flows at its own sweet will. Its waters spread as wide an area as possible. After Kalabagh It does not have any fetters. So the writer is fully justifed in saying “The Indus in Fetters.” The title corresponds with the subject matter.

Q.3 Today I corkscrewed down the Kohat side of the mountain so as to see Indus in his fetters.

This line has been taken from “The Indus in Fetters” by A.J. Toynbee. Describe in your words the passage from Kohat to the Attock bridge and what the writer saw there.
At first glance, he seems to be gliding over so slowly. But when you watch the eddies on hither side, you realize how swiftly they are chasing each other each one of them eager to reach the exit from the prison, where the hurrying waters can once again expand and relax”(Page-12)

These sentences have been taken from “The Indus in fetters” in East and West. Give an appreciation of the scene of the Indus as seen by Arnold. J.Toynbee from the Khushhal Garh rail and road bridge.
(Gomal University 2003)


  1. The passage from Kohat to Attock
    In this lesson, the writer has described his Journey by car from Kohat Pass to the Khushhal Garh Bridge. From here he saw the river Indus flowing through mountains.
    The writer had to go to Kohat. He passed through Kohat Pass. He stood on the roof of the Kohat pass and saw the Kohat cantonment) far below. It looked very tiny. The passage leading to it is very dangerous. The mountain runs down to plains in a series of steps while road turns round them steeply. Driving on this road is frightening. One slip could be fatal. The passage leading to the Attock bridge is more terrifying while driving the car. The writer exercised the utmost care because the roads were very dangerous. The large and vast range of chocolate coloured hillock seemed like frozen waves of a grand ocean in storm.The writer was much thrilled by the strange looking sight. The Indus was flowing through such a strange pass.
  2. The river enters into mountains
    At Attock, the river enters into mountains. The wide spread waters of Indus are suddenly confined to a narrow way. There are rocks near Attock and the poor river has to limit its waves into a narrow path. It flows ‘through the narrow and rocky path from Attock to Kalabagh, It is surrounded – on both sides by big hills. The writer calls it “Indus in fetters”. Its path looks like a prison. At Kalabagh the waters come out of the chain and set free again. The waves move very fast. It seems that it is in a great hurry to reach and exit. It flows in as wide a way as it likes.
  3. The writer enjoyed the view
    The writer spent the whole day at Attock. He enjoyed the view. He saw a shephered. He was pushing his sheep into an inlet of the river. The sheep looked frightened. He could not understand why the shepherd was treating the sheep so harshly. He thought the shepherd was either a mad or a devil incarnate but he was neither of the two. He was amazed(e.r:01j) to see that the sheep were brave. They went under the water, came up again and climbed on the other hank of the river. They shook their bodies like dogs who do the same when they come out of the water. He remembered that European sheep did not like water and were coward. He was much pleased to see such a fine scene. He was convinced of the superiority of the Middle Eastern sheep. He thought that Khushhal Khan was right to compare the bravery of this tribe to the sheep.

Q.4 Give an appreciation of the scene of the Indus as seen by the author, Arnold J.Toynbee, from the Khushhal Garh rail and road bridge.

How was Arnold J.Toynbee affected by the scene as he stood on the rail-and-road bridge of Khushhal Garh?

  1. The scene of the indus
    Arnold. J.Toynbee was a famous historian. He travelled from Kohat Pass to Khushhal Garh Bridge. He says that he was standing on the rail-and-road bridge of Khushhal Garh. He looked down at the river Indus flowing below him. He was much impressed to see the scene of the river Indus flowing below from the rail-and-road bridge of Khashhal Garh. He was much thrilled by the strange looking sight. The river was flowing through a strange path. It was flowing, rather gliding at its own sweet will . The river seemed to be happy at its release from the hills.
  2. A Beautiful Sight Looking from the bridge, he saw a beautiful sight. He saw a shepherd with his flock of sheep. The shepherd was busy with his sheep. The sheep were coming towards the water of the river. Soon they began to enter the water. He was much surprised to see them going into the water one after the other. They bathed happily in the water and then began to swim.They reached the other bank of he river. They shook their bodies like dogs who do the same when they come out of the water. The write was much pleased to see such a fine scene. He enjoyed it very much. He was convinced of the superiority of the Middle Eastern sheep. He thought that Khashhal Khan rightly compared the bravery of his tribe to the sheep.
  3. Remembered European Sheep He remembered COO that European sheep did not like water. They were coward They would die of panic. The sheep, down the bridge were brave sheep. They were a symbol of bravery. He remembered that the great pushto poet “Khushhal Khan Khattak” wrote about the bravery of his tribesmen and used the word sheeplike to explain their brave attitude.He compares these sheep with the European sheep and enjoys the scene. He had a lot of time at his disposal. He stood there and went on looking at the beautiful sight for a long time. He was much impressed by it. The scene was grand. The river Indus was flowingfreely and happily at its sweet will. It was coming out of the large mountain fetters. A flock of sheep was bathing and swimming in its waters. The writer wished to see the scene again and again.

Textual Comprehsions Marks 15

Bs Notes 4th Years Part-2 THE INDUS IN FETTERS Passage NO 2

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end. (Gomal University 1995)
The Indus has two fetters; Attock and Kalabagh. At Attock, his widespread waters are suddenly confined. At kalahagh they are suddenly released, to spread themselves again —this time, miles wide-down all the length of Sindh.

Today I was bound for the Indus rail and road bridge at Khushhalgarh. Partway down the great river’s constricted track. But were we going to come out alive from the first stage of this onward journey from the past? Corkscrew? The word is quite inadequate. The nearest that I can come to describing this hair-raising descent is to compare it with the road around the Sorrento Peninsula, south of Naples.

It you have ever ventured into that Italian death trap. You will have some notion of the descent from Kohat Pass to Kohat Town. The mountain runs down to the plain in a series of giant steps, and the road, at its critical point, clambers around three sides of one of these. To hold the road at this point, one’s car must have a lizard’s feet.

Well, we are down, through the cantonment, and past the new Government College, heading east, The plain ends, the field dies away and we are dodging through a stormy sea of chocolate coloured rocks and reefs. Thank heaven they have been frozen into stone.

Otherwise, they would surely have engulfed us, how even deftly the threatened road might turn. and twist. It is this tormented landscape that hems Father Indus in a giant stream imprisoned between the waves of the gigantic petrified ocean.

BS Questions Part-2

What are two fetters of the Indus? Why does the writer name them as such?

Attock and Kalabagh are the two fetters of the River Indus. By the word, fetters the writer means that the river narrows down its path at Attock due to surrounding hills. It follows in the same way, till Kalabagh where it is released. Then the water flows freely down into the sandy plain.

For which place was the writer bound and how did he feel about it?

The Writer was bound for the Indus-rail-road bridge of Khushhalgarh wherefrom he saw the beautiful scene of the surroundings. He felt very much surprised to see the strange descent from Kohat Pass to Kohat Cantonment.

What does the writer mean by the word “Corkscrew”? To which place does he apply this word?

“Corkscrew” means ‘screwing the cork, a way which goes round and round. Here the writer uses this word to mention the way that comes down from the Kohat Pass to Kohat Cantonment. This word shows the dangerous turns of the rocky way to Kohat which very much resembles the dangerous round the Sorento Penisula. south of Naples in Italy

What did the writer see past the new Government College?

The Writer saw that the plains and field had ended. There were rocks of chocolate colour which looked like a stormy sea.

Suggest a suitable title for the passage.

The Dangers of Mountain Road.

the indus in fetters summary Bs English Notes

It is physically impossible for a well educated intellectual or a brave man to make money The chief object of his thoughts, just as it is impossible for him to make his dinner, is the principal object of his life. All healthy people like their dinner but this is not the main object of their lives. So all healthy-minded people like making money, ought to like it and enjoy the sensation of winning it. But the main object of their life is not money. It is something better than money. A good soldier, for instance, mainly wishes to do his fighting well.

He is glad of his pay – and justly grumbles when you keep him ten days without it — still, his main notion of life is to win battles, not to be paid for winning them, So, of the doctors. They like fees, no doubt, ought to like it; yet if they are brave and well educated, the entire object of their lives is no fees.

They, on the whole, like to cure the sick, and if they are good doctors, and the choice was fairly put to them, would rather cure their patients and lose their fee than kill him and get it. And so with all the other brave and rightly trained men; their work is first, their fee second–very important, no doubt; but still, second. But in every nation, as I said, there are vast numbers of people who are ill-educated, cowardly, and more or less stupid.

And with second, as with the brave people, the work is first and the fee second.


Money should not be the main object of our thoughts. To make money is never the chief aim of life of a good soldier or of a good doctor. Both of them love to be paid for their work, yet the material reward for their work is not the sole aim before them; For one it is to win battles, and for the other to cure the sick. If they are really sensible, they would rather lose their reward than fail in the performance of their duties. Thus with all-wise and brave, men, the primary consideration is to work and not its material reward, which though important is always a secondary consideration with them.

Heading:- Work first, fee second:


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